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【引用】光与形体(转载自 franken 博客)  

2011-02-10 09:33:21|  分类: |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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本文引用自小虎牙《光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客)》

Light and Form, Part 1
作者:James Gurney(恐龙帝国)
翻译:DylanZhang(http://blog.sina.com.cn/ts152154539)
(译者注:for personal study purpose,I translate this article by James Gurney。I am grateful to James for his share。 Commercial purposes is not permitted!
出于个人学习目的,我翻译了James Gurney的这篇文章。衷心感谢James分享的知识。切勿用于商业用途!)


光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客) - 小虎牙 - 桃花島の水簾洞

 
翻译完了没保存真不爽啊,我就捡重点。
Light striking a geometric solid such as a sphere or a cube creates an orderly and predictable series of tones. Learning to identify these tones and to place them in their proper relationship is one of the keys to achieving a look of solidity.
光打到几何体比如球体或者立方体上产生了一系列有序的调子。学会分辨这些调子并且把它们以合适的关系组织起来就会让东西看起来很立体。
The form principle is the analysis of nature in terms of geometrical solids, which can be rendered according to laws of tonal contrast.
Modeling Factors(我真不知道这个术语叫啥,意思上是素描关系)
The photograph above shows a sphere in direct sunlight. It has a distinct set of tonal steps from light to shadow, known as modeling factors.
照片展示了直射阳光下的球体。它从亮部到暗部的调子泾渭分明。这个就是素描关系。
In direct sunlight, there’s a strong division of light and shade. The light side includes the light and dark halftones, the center light, and the highlight. The center light is the point at which the light rays strike the form most vertically. The highlight is the point where, in a shiny surface, we see a reflection of the light source.
直射光下,光与影区分明显。亮区域包括亮和暗的中间调,中央光区,高光。(译者:这里和我们说的五大调子理解上稍有不同)。中央光区就是光线垂直打到物体表面的那个部分。高光区是光滑表面上我们看见光源反射的那个点(译者:注意是光滑表面上——其实就是镜面反射的意思,请参见讲反射的那篇——比如擦干净的苹果。但我觉得石膏也是具备光滑属性,只是值很低,所以高光不如金属亮,也没有镜面反射。了解3d的会更好理解)
Note that the center light and highlight are not at the same location. The Terminator The terminator is the area where the form transitions from light into shadow. It occurs where the light rays from the source are tangent to the edge of the form. If the source is soft and indirect, the transition from light to shadow at the terminator will be more gradual. The form shadow begins just beyond the terminator.
注意中央光和高光的位置是不一样的。明暗交界线是物体从亮部转入暗部的区域。这个就是光线和表面相切。假如光源柔和非直射,那么明暗交界线上从亮部转入暗部的变化也更柔和趋于渐变(反之强光下则显得比较锐利))。明暗交界线后方就是物体投影的开始啊
To test which areas are in light and which are in shadow, you can cast a shadow with a pencil on the object. The cast shadow will show up only on the lighted side, not on the shadow side.

 

Light and Form, Part 2
作者:James Gurney
翻译:DylanZhang(http://blog.sina.com.cn/ts152154539


光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客) - 小虎牙 - 桃花島の水簾洞

 
译者:在开始第二篇前我想谈一些自己的看法。在第一篇之后想必一些人会有点困惑,我也是,一些老外读者也是。于是我再仔细看了遍原文下方老外的评论和james自己的发言,然后稍加分析,一切就彻底明了了。我是一个习惯吧简单事情做复杂的人,所以这种基本问题我也会耗点时间。回报就是纠正并补全了我以往的认识。我想困惑就我而言来自2点,一是center light 和highlight,二是terminator(明暗交界)和core shadow(再过明暗交界一点最暗的那个部分)。我一直认为亮部中有个高光,但实际上他们不在一个位置(除非光的方向和眼睛看的方向是一个角度),另外可能是这个术语的翻译不准确导致我们理解成了另外的东西,所以请务必先把自己清0再去学新东西,哪怕是重新看待已知的东西。关于center light 和highlight的定义第一篇很明确了,我想只要想象一个顶视图就能搞清。第二个问题,我一直以为明暗交界线是最暗的部分,实际上,如果一个空间中只有一个光源而且没有周围环境反射的话确实是这样,而且整个暗部都是。但是还有环境反光,这个环境反光必然又制造了一个暗部,那么最暗的部分应该是明暗交界再过去一点的那个部分(此时我想起了xiaoK在画素描头像时说的话,大悟!)。更多解释在后面内容中。关于这些,不同的人有不同理解,我记得陈层c大说打了个主光一个反光明暗交界线自己就出来了。
Within the shadow is not darkness but the effect of other, weaker sources.
在阴影中的不是黑暗,而是来自其他东西的影响,譬如微弱的光源。


光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客) - 小虎牙 - 桃花島の水簾洞

 In the case of the drapery study above, drawn in graphite while I was in art school, the key light strikes the form from the left. You can tell it’s a hard source because of the sharp diagonal cast shadow line. Overhead fluorescents, only slightly less bright, illuminate the shadow side.
The drapery study has the look of an academic exercise partly because it is "overmodeled" which means the tendency to put the full range of modeling factors within each passage.
Outdoors, the blue light from the sky usually modifies the shadow planes, depending on how much they face upward. Reflected light often raises the tone of the shadow. It comes from light bouncing up off the ground surface or from other surfaces. The darkest parts of the shadow are usually at points of contact, called occlusion shadows, where secondary sources can't reach.
在户外,来自天空的蓝色光通常缓和投影面,取决于他们朝下的程度。反光来自地面上光的反射或者其他表面,通常提起暗部的调子。投影里最暗的地方通常是物体相接点(见第一篇的图),叫occlusion shadows(恕我没有对应的中文术语,不过熟悉3d的人都知道occlusion是个啥,环境阻塞?),这些地方呢,第二光源也打不到。
Another dark part of the shadow is the area just beyond the terminator. This area is called the core or the hump of the shadow. The core of the shadow only forms if the secondary source of light (edge light, reflected light, or fill light) doesn’t overlap too much with the main light.
暗部里另外一个很暗的地方就是明暗交界线过去点。叫 core of shadow,或者core shadow,或者hump,whatever。只有当第二光源(轮廓光,反射光,补光)和主光重叠不是太多的时候才会形成这个core shadow。


光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客) - 小虎牙 - 桃花島の水簾洞

 In “Daniel in the Lion’s Den,” by Rubens, a strong orange-colored reflected light fills the shadow side of Daniel’s form, all the way from his cheek and neck, down his arm and his leg. Keeping the core intact—or painting it in even if it’s not really there—can give the form more impact, but if it’s overdone it can look unnatural.
上副油画中,一个很强的橘色反光照亮了主人公丹尼尔的暗部,一直从脸颊到脖子到手臂到腿。保持core shadow的完整,或者即便不存在也画上它,可以让形体看起来更有冲击力,但是做过了就会不自然了。(老师一直强调的这条线啊啊,不过貌似很多人当它是明暗交界线,其实要再过去一点点,whatever)
If you’re setting up a model or maquette, you can place the primary and secondary lights just far enough apart so that you can see the core beginning to form.

Light and Form, Part 3
作者:James Gurney
翻译:DylanZhang(http://blog.sina.com.cn/ts152154539)


光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客) - 小虎牙 - 桃花島の水簾洞

 In soft or diffuse light, such as overcast light, there is no distinct light side, shadow side, terminator, or core. All of the upward facing planes tend to be lighter, since they receive more of the diffused light from the cloudy ceiling.
在柔光或者漫射光下,比如多云的阴天里,就没有明显的亮部,暗部,明暗交界线和那个core(具体解释见第二篇)。由于接收更多多云环境里的漫射光,所有朝上的面显得更亮。


光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客) - 小虎牙 - 桃花島の水簾洞

 The photograph of the ball shows the quality of overcast light. The cast shadow has no definite edge. There’s no clear division between light and shadow unless the form turns on a hard edge.
照片显示了阴天环境下的球体表面情况。投影没有明确的边。在亮部和暗部间没有明确的分界,除非这个形体是以硬边转折的。


光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客) - 小虎牙 - 桃花島の水簾洞

 Here’s an example of overcast light falling on the figure of David Balfour in the N. C. Wyeth illustration “On the Island of Earraid,” from Kidnapped. The planes of the figure’s skin and clothing get lighter where they face more toward the light sky. (The sharp tonal changes in the background are dramatic plane changes in the rock.)
这是N. C. Wyeth插画中的一个画面,里面的主人公David就身处阴天的光环境下。人物的皮肤和衣服更朝天空的地方显得亮一点。(背景中那块大岩石调子的剧烈变化是因为那个面转折很强烈)。


光与形体(转载自 DylanZhang 博客) - 小虎牙 - 桃花島の水簾洞

 Another example of overcast light is this portrait of a girl by William Bouguereau. The form doesn’t have a light side and a shadow side in the conventional sense. The vertical plane of the dress and the upper arm are both darker than the forearm and the leg of the dress, which catch more light because they face more upward.
另一个例子就是William Bouguereau的女孩画像。画中人物形体没有传统感觉里的亮部和暗部。裙子的竖直面和上臂都比前臂和大腿那个面显得暗,因为前臂和包裹大腿的裙子面朝上吸收更多的光。
The coolness of this light source is evident from the relatively warm shadow under the chair. Occlusion shadows require especially careful attention in diffuse light, often appearing as notably sharp accents in the work of Bouguereau and Rockwell.
光源的冷色与椅子下暖色的影子相比很明显。在漫射光中,需要更加注意occlusion shadow(另一篇讲occlusion shadow的文章中有详解),在Bouguereau 和 Rockwell的作品中,这个occlusion shadow通常以一个明显的急转的调子出现。

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